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In view of the differences of opinion between the two parties on the mandate and functions of UNAMET, the Secretary-General believes that UNAMET can be lifted only by decision of the Security Council. In the absence of such an agreement, UNAMET was maintained with the same agreements established after the armistice of December 1971. The task of UNMOGIP was to monitor as far as possible the evolution of the situation related to the strict observance of the armistice of 17 December 1971 and to report thereon to the Secretary-General. The last report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council on UNAGP was issued in 1972. At the end of 1971, hostilities broke out again between India and Pakistan. They began along the borders of East Pakistan and were linked to the independence movement that had developed in that region and eventually led to the founding of Bangladesh. After India and Pakistan fought the first war in Kashmir, shortly after becoming independent and sovereign states in 1947, this led to the intervention of the United Nations. In October 1947, tribal members invaded Kashmir and forced Maharaja Hari Singh to flee Kashmir. He asked India for help and signed the instrument of accession, after which the Indian army landed in Srinagar on October 27. Defeated battles were fought and the tribes were driven out.

By this time, however, the princely state of J&K had been cut into two parts. The Indian government sought mediation of the conflict through the United Nations (UN) on January 1, 1948, and the mediation process ended the war on January 1, 1948. January 1949, a year later, and it officially ended at 1159 p.m. on the night of January 1 to 2, 1949. Subsequently, the two countries were encouraged by the UN to sign a pact on July 29, 1949, which established the armistice line, a break that later became the LoC. The text itself, if the agreement follows: B. The duly plenipotentied delegations of India and Pakistan reached the following agreement: Although it is not clear whether the CFA would trigger talks in other areas in 2021, the possibility of piecemeal agreements to create lasting stability at the bilateral level remains, unless progress in other areas follows. C. The ceasefire line described above is drawn on a one-inch map (if available) and then checked by local commanders on each side with the support of UN military observers on the ground to eliminate any no man`s land. If the local commanders do not reach an agreement, the matter is referred to the Commission`s military adviser, whose decision is final. According to this review (a), the line from Manawar to the south bank of the Jhelurn River to Urusa (including India) is the line now defined by the factual positions on which there is agreement between the two parties. If there has been no agreement so far, the line is as follows: (i) in the Patrana region: Kohel (including Pakistan) north along Khuwala Kas Nullah to point 2276 (including to India), from there to Kirni (including india).

(ii) Khambha, Pir Satwan, points 3150 and 3606 are included for India, so the line goes to the situation at Bagla Gala, from there to the situation at point 3300. (iii) In the region south of Uri, the positions of Pir Kanthi and Ledi Gali belong to Pakistan. The 830-kilometer ceasefire line established in the agreement began at a southernmost point west of the Chenab River in Jammu. It ran in an arc north and then northeast to map coordinate NJ9842, about 19 km north of the Shyok River. [6] In July 1972, India and Pakistan signed an agreement establishing a line of control in Kashmir that followed the same course as the armistice line established by the Karachi Agreement in 1949, with slight deviations. India took the position that the mandate of UNMOGIP had expired because it specifically referred to the ceasefire line under the Karachi Agreement. However, Pakistan has not accepted this position. H.K. Sinha explained that Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had informed the Indian delegation ahead of the Karachi meeting, informing them that the UN resolution would grant the legality of Kashmir`s accession to India and that any „no man`s land” would therefore belong to India. His delegation should provide the United Nations Commission with evidence of the actual positions of its control over the entire territory it claimed. Sinha explained that based on this principle, the agreement demarcated several hundred square kilometers of territory on the Indian side, although there are no Indian troops in this region. [5] 2.

The UN Commission for India and Pakistan said in its letter: „The meeting will be for military purposes; political issues are not taken into account” and that „they will be conducted without prejudice to the negotiations on the ceasefire agreement”; These agreements remained in force until the conclusion of the Karachi Agreement on 27 July 1949, which established an armistice line to be monitored by United Nations military observers. The Karachi agreement stipulated that UNCIP would send observers when necessary and that the ceasefire line on the ground should be peer-reviewed by local commanders on each side with the support of UN military observers. Disagreements should be submitted to the UNCIP military adviser, whose decision would be final. For the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan: (Signed) (Signed) HERNANDO SAMPER MAURICE DELVOIE. Network level: Document 2 – What distinguishes the recent ceasefire from the previous 3. that the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan added in the same letter: „The armistice line is a complement to the suspension of hostilities, which falls within the provisions of Part I of the resolution of 13 August 1948 and may be considered separately from matters related to Part II of the same resolution”; AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ARMISTICE LINE IN THE STATE OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR A photo from 18 August 1948 showing UNCIP consulting Indian officials in New Delhi on the ceasefire proposal. (from left to right) – Gopaliswami Ayyangar, A.V. Pai, Pandit Nehru, Sir Girja Shanker Bajpai and on the other side of the table (from left to right) Hernando Samper (Colombia), Egbert Graeffe (Belgium), Josef Korbel (Czechoslovakia) and J. Klahr Huddle (USA). The Karachi agreement between India and Pakistan established a ceasefire line that will be monitored by military observers. These observers, under the command of the Military Adviser, formed the core of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). On 30 March 1951, following the dissolution of the United Nations Commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP), the Security Council adopted resolution 91 (1951) that UNMILP should continue to monitor the armistice line in Kashmir.

The tasks of UNMOGIP were to monitor and report, investigate complaints of ceasefire violations and present its findings to each party and to the Secretary-General. [11] D. The members of the Ceasefire Subcommittee of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan were: Mr. Hernando Samper (Colombia), Chairman; Mr. William L.S. Williams (United States); Lieutenant-General Maurice Delvoie, Military Adviser, Mr. Miguel A. Marin, Legal Adviser.

. Map of the state of Jammu and Kashmir with the ceasefire line agreed in the Karachi Agreement, ratified by the governments of India and Pakistan on 29 and 30 July, respectively. (See annex 26 of the third progress report of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan) [9] [10] D. The members of the Ceasefire Subcommittee of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan were: For the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan: Hernando Samper M. Delvoie ” IN FAITH, the undersigned sign this document in three original copies. B. The members of the Indian delegation were: Lieutenant-General S.M. Shrinagesh, Major-General K.S. Thimayya, Brigadier S.H.F.J. Manekshaw. As observers: Mr.

H.M. Patel, Mr. V. Sahay. Agreement between the military representatives of India and Pakistan on the establishment of a ceasefire line in the state of Jammu and Kashmir Security Council resolution 39 of April 1948 established a United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to mediate between India and Pakistan in order to bring about an end to the fighting in Kashmir and to arrange for a referendum. After negotiations with both sides, the Commission adopted a three-part resolution in August 1948 and subsequently added a „supplement.” The three sides discussed the ceasefire, the terms of the ceasefire and the negotiated procedures for the referendum. Both countries accepted the resolution on September 31. An armistice was concluded in December 1948. .